When carrying a baby, the state of many organs and systems deteriorates: the load increases, the metabolism is rebuilt. Various pathologies arise, for example, teeth deteriorate and decay. Let us analyze why the number of visits to the dentist increases during this period, how to treat teeth during pregnancy, which procedures can be done and which ones will have to be postponed.
Impact of pregnancy on dental health
The following changes occur in the body:
- Hormonal changes, immunological changes – the corpus luteum, the placenta secrete hormones, the concentration of which increases with the duration. Some of them suppress the immune system so that the immune cells do not attack the tissues of the fetus. General immunity falls, the body loses its ability to destroy pathogens, which is fraught with the development of infectious and inflammatory processes;
- Changes in the microflora of the oral cavity – due to increased salivation, its characteristics change. Such changes also contribute to the accumulation of microbes in the oral cavity, the formation of plaque;
- Due to the formation of the baby’s skeleton, the need for vitamins and minerals increases. As a result, a deficiency of these substances may develop if a woman does not adjust her diet, lifestyle;
- Due to toxicosis with vomiting, calcium and phosphorus, which are necessary for bone tissue, are excreted from the body. As a result, the risk of tooth decay increases.
Risk factors that can lead to bad teeth during pregnancy are:
- Weighed down heredity;
- Poor oral hygiene;
- Bad habits;
- Chronic pathology of the gastrointestinal tract;
- Pathology of the parathyroid glands;
- Taking medications that cause teeth to deteriorate.
What dental problems occur during pregnancy
9 months are divided into three periods. In each of them, characteristic changes take place. The way a woman is managed by a dentist may also differ.
An increased concentration of progesterone is needed to stimulate blood flow in the uterus. But hormones act on the entire body, so at the same time, blood circulation in the gums increases. Because of this, the gum tissue becomes loose, soft, bacteria, fungi easily penetrate into them, infectious and inflammatory processes develop: stomatitis, caries, gingivitis (inflammation of the gums). Also sometimes toxicosis develops with nausea, vomiting, the contents of the stomach corrode the enamel. This increases the likelihood of tissue inflammation.
Gingivitis without therapy progresses, turning into periodontitis – inflammation of the gums with damage to the ligaments. This is a deep process, as a result of which a tooth can fall out.
A change in a woman’s taste preferences plays a role. If she eats foods high in carbohydrates, which are nutrients for bacteria, tooth decay occurs and spreads quickly.
The doctor’s tactics depend on the prevalence of the process, the general condition of the body. In the 1st trimester, implantation occurs, the organs of the fetus are formed. Any external influences, the use of drugs are undesirable, as they can lead to miscarriage, violation of the laying of organs.
During this period, manipulations are allowed in conditions that threaten health and cannot be postponed. For example, an abscess has formed – it is opened, acute pain does not pass – removal or therapy is performed.
The same pathology arises as at the beginning of an interesting position. With the difference that toxicosis passes, so one damaging factor disappears. The formation of organs is over, the placenta is formed. Therefore, if you need to treat your teeth during pregnancy, during this period, therapy can be carried out without fear. For example, if you need to relieve pain and remove the source of pain, the 2nd trimester is the best time.
The consumption of minerals by the fetus is increasing: they are used to build bone tissue. As a result, the expectant mother’s teeth may crumble. She should reconsider her diet or start taking vitamin and mineral complexes.
Closer to childbirth, it is also undesirable to carry out dental manipulations. During this period, it is difficult for a woman to sit in a chair due to the volume of her abdomen. In addition, it is not recommended to be in this position for a long time due to the compression of the inferior vena cava by the uterus, the aorta. This can lead to a violation of blood flow in the placenta, hence – to oxygen starvation of the fetus.
External stimuli, stress during treatment negatively affect the condition of the expectant mother. Therefore, if there is no urgent need (severe pain, cysts, suppuration), therapy should be postponed for several months.
Can teeth be treated during pregnancy?
If problems begin in terms of dentistry, you need to start therapy in a timely manner. Therefore, dental treatment during pregnancy is not only possible, but also necessary. But it is recommended to approach the issue individually: there are methods that can be used without fear, and there are prohibited ones. Let’s figure out what manipulations are allowed.
Filling Teeth during pregnancy
When there is such a need, you can fill your teeth. Without therapy, caries progresses rapidly, pulpitis develops. With a large size of the carious cavity, you first need to anesthetize, drill, remove pathological tissues, and install an arsenic-free paste. At the next appointment, the doctor removes the paste, nerve fibers, and then fills the tooth.
If the therapy is carried out on time, it is possible to get by with one visit. There is no need to relieve pain – the treatment is already easily tolerated. Any filling material can be used.
Anesthesia Teeth during pregnancy
One of the reasons people postpone a visit to the dentist is fear of pain. In women expecting a baby, pain can cause arterial hypertension, uterine hypertonicity. But if you first anesthetize, everything will go quite comfortably. Also, anesthesia is used before removal.
When carrying a child, local anesthesia is applied. Modern drugs do not cross the placenta to the fetus, have a minimal vasoconstrictor effect. The dosage must be carefully selected.
If you are not yet in a position, but have just come to grips with planning conception, you need to do a test before visiting the dentist. If the test is positive, inform the doctor about your interesting situation so that he uses only safe materials.
X-ray Teeth during pregnancy
X-rays, if the technique is not followed, negatively affect the developing fetus. But modern devices allow you to take a picture in a safe way, when the rays penetrate pointwise, affecting only the maxillofacial area. An apron is put on a woman, which protects her stomach and chest from radiation. There are also devices that allow you to conduct research quickly.
When an X-ray is prescribed for you, ask your doctor about the safest place to get diagnosed.
In general, X-rays are prescribed only when necessary and they try to carry it out no earlier than 2 trimesters. For example, during prosthetics, filling, removal, it is needed for a preliminary assessment of the condition of the jaws and gums. After receiving the image, it will be easier for the doctor to decide on the tactics of treatment.
Tooth extraction during pregnancy
It may be necessary to pull out a tooth during pregnancy when it is impossible to save it. If the situation is urgent, delay is fraught with complications, the operation is performed at any time. When this is a planned manipulation, it is postponed, prescribed for the 2nd or 3rd trimester.
Extraction, that is, removal, is carried out under local anesthesia.
When it is necessary to remove a wisdom tooth, they also try to postpone the operation, but at a later date, that is, the postpartum period. Visualization is difficult, and the manipulation itself is technically difficult due to the location. In addition, when removing a wisdom tooth, complications may arise: an inflammatory process, an increase in temperature. In this case, antibiotic therapy will be needed, which is undesirable when carrying a fetus.
If removal is unavoidable, after it you must strictly follow the doctor’s recommendations: rinse your mouth regularly, refuse solid food, hot foods, and drink.
It is worth noting separately the situation when a wisdom tooth grows. The process may be accompanied by pain due to inflammation of the hood, suppuration, and cyst formation. In this case, the doctor conducts an examination, identifies the cause of painful sensations, the condition of the gums. Based on the results of the examination, he can prescribe conservative (rinsing) or surgical (excision of pathological tissue) methods.
Prosthetics Teeth during pregnancy
Prosthetics are done when the patient has deep caries. Other indications are the absence of one’s own teeth due to injuries, removal. It should be borne in mind that this is a multi-stage procedure that includes removal (if necessary), treatment, and enamel turning. X-rays are taken if necessary. When all the preparatory measures have been taken, an impression is made. A denture, crown or bridge is made from the impression and the teeth are inserted.
It is necessary to keep in mind the physiological changes in the gums, which is why healing is slower. Therefore, it is better to insert teeth after childbirth, if possible. For the same reason, it is not recommended to carry out implantation – the implant may not take root, all efforts will be in vain.
Professional hygiene Teeth during pregnancy
Professional cleaning is a necessary procedure that is recommended for all people. Even with careful hygiene, deposits build up, especially in hard-to-reach places. If not removed, they can lead to inflammation and pain.
Cleaning consists in removing stone, plaque. There are several ways of professional processing: mechanical, Air Flow using compressed air, water, abrasive particles, ultrasonic, laser. The dentist will decide which method is right after the examination.
Bite correction, whitening Teeth during pregnancy
Wearing braces is undesirable. During this period, the teeth become fragile anyway, and braces are an additional damaging factor. If a woman has been wearing them for a long time, it is worth discussing with the doctor how to strengthen the bone tissue to prevent the negative effects of braces.
There is also no need to whiten your teeth. This is not a medical, but a cosmetic procedure, during which damage to the enamel is possible.
What drugs can be used to combat toothache
With inflammatory processes of the oral cavity, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory drugs may be needed. Some of them are contraindicated. For example, tetracycline can cause developmental abnormalities, cataracts, as well as damage to liver cells, pancreas in the expectant mother.
Corticosteroids, which are usually used for anti-inflammatory purposes, are prohibited in the 2nd or 3rd trimesters, as they can cause cardiovascular disorders.
At high temperatures, antipyretic drugs are needed. In this situation, acetylsalicylic acid, codeine-containing drugs should not be used. Paracetamol, no-spa, ibuprofen are allowed. These same drugs will help relieve pain.
Allowed folk remedies and treatment methods when teeth hurt during pregnancy in the late stages:
- rinse with warm water – 1 teaspoon of baking soda or salt in a glass of water. You can brew herbs and rinse with this broth. Sage, chamomile, mint, St. John’s wort will help relieve pain;
- cotton swabs soaked in oil of cloves, sea buckthorn, fir.
Keep in mind that pain relief is not a way out of the situation, but only temporary relief of the condition. This does not negate the consultation of a doctor. Only a qualified specialist can determine the cause of the pain and prescribe the appropriate therapy. Took an ibuprofen pill for pain, the condition has improved – go for an in-person consultation with a doctor.
Dental care during pregnancy or Teeth during pregnancy
A woman should properly care for her oral cavity. Recommendations are as follows:
- It is worth consulting your dentist to find the right paste for you. And choose a brush of medium hardness, change it at least 1 time in 3 months, and more often in case of diseases of the oral cavity;
- Carefully observe oral hygiene, clean 2 times a day. Use mouthwash – they take care of your teeth, gums, give your breath freshness;
- Cut back on sweets, strong coffee, tea, soda, and juices. Rinse your mouth with clean water after eating. The same procedure must be done if you suffer from toxicosis with vomiting;
- Take care of your mouth as early as the planning stage. First, this will eliminate the source of the infection. Secondly, then you don’t have to puzzle over how to treat caries or insert a crown. Thirdly, before conception, you can safely do everything that is contraindicated during gestation, for example, whiten your teeth;
- Monitor your diet. The menu should contain fruits, vegetables, dairy products (milk, kefir, cottage cheese, low-fat sour cream), nuts, seafood (fish, cod liver 4 times a week) as a source of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus. If this is problematic, ask your obstetrician-gynecologist to choose vitamin and mineral complexes for you. It is advisable to start taking medications before conception.